Provide your students with the basic electrical principles necessary to understand today's modern control systems with this fully updated edition of Smith's ELECTRICITY FOR REFRIGERATION, HEATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING. Acclaimed for its meticulous accuracy and easy-to-understand presentation, the book takes a practical approach that allows your students to focus exclusively on the electronics information they will use in the field, without bogging them down in unnecessary theory. This 40th Anniversary edition continues to emphaize systematic diagnosis and troubleshooting methods and procedures that enable students to become highly-skilled, professional HVAC-R service technicians. Electrical Safety. Basic Electricity.
Electric Circuits. Electric Meters. Components, Symbols and Circuitry of Air Conditioning Wiring Diagrams. Reading Schematic Diagrams. Alternating Current, Power Distribution, and Voltage Systems. Installation of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems. Electric Motors.
Components of Electric Motors. Contractors, Relays and Overloads. Thermostats, Pressure Switches, and Other Electric Control Devices.
Electronic Control Devices. Heating Control Devices. Troubleshooting Electric Control Devices. Residential Air Conditioning Control Systems. Light Commercial Air Conditioning Control Systems. Troubleshooting Refrigeration, Heating, and Air-Conditioning Control Circuits and Systems. • Coverage of contactors, relays, thermostats, pressure and manual switches, overload, and other state-of-the-art electrical components prepare readers for work in the field today.
Energy Efficiency in Industrial HVAC Systems - 2 - September 2003 pushed towards coils where the air is either heated or cooled, depending on the temperature of the.
• Learning aids in every chapter include learning objectives, definitions of key terms, summaries, and review questions to increase comprehension and improve retention. • Photos and illustrations throughout the book encourage readers to apply information directly to modern equipment, components and control systems. • Symbols are introduced and used consistently. • An accompanying Lab Manual includes a unit overview, list of key terms, review test, and lab exercises when appropriate for each chapter. • An Instructor's Guide on the Instructor Resource Site contains short description of the material covered in each chapter; unit objectives; safety notes; lab notes; answers to Review Questions in the text; answers to Troubleshooting Problems in the text; answers to review questions in the Lab Manual; and lab exercises where applicable. • An Instructor Resource CD with PowerPoint presentations, syllabus, chapter hints, lesson plans, test banks, and an image gallery is available to adopters.
• The book provides especially strong coverage of installation and troubleshooting, as well as the basics of electricity and circuits—all with HVAC applications. • Schematic diagrams of twelve specific applications used in industry are explored, enabling readers to become expert troubleshooters. • In-depth discussion of the types, designs, starting components, diagnosis, and troubleshooting procedures for single-phase motors mirrors their importance in the industry. • A new section on communication thermostats and their use in the industry covers the latest technology and types of equipment. • Zone control systems are covered in greater detail. • New questions reinforce mastery of new information on communication thermostats and zone control systems.
• The schematic diagram section has been streamlined to cover only current control systems. • The Safety section has been expanded and enhanced with more coverage, more detail, and new art. • A new web-based, immersive 3D HVAC training simulation that connects with selective diagrams and schematics from the book in a visually compelling manner is now available.
HVACR technicians must follow EPA rules when they work with gases and refrigerants. Quick Facts: Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Mechanics and Installers $45,910 per year $22.07 per hour Postsecondary nondegree award None Long-term on-the-job training 332,900 15% (Much faster than average) 49,100 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers—often called heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVACR) technicians—work on heating, ventilation, cooling, and refrigeration systems that control the temperature and air quality in buildings. HVACR technicians work mostly in homes, schools, hospitals, office buildings, or factories. Their worksites may be very hot or cold because the heating and cooling systems they must repair may not be working properly and because some parts of these systems are located outdoors. Working in cramped spaces and during irregular hours is common. Because HVACR systems have become increasingly complex, employers generally prefer applicants with postsecondary education or those who have completed an apprenticeship. Some states and localities may require technicians to be licensed.
The median annual wage for heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers was $45,910 in May 2016. Employment of heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers is projected to grow 15 percent from 2016 to 2026, much faster than the average for all occupations. Commercial and residential building construction is expected to drive employment growth, and job opportunities for HVACR technicians are expected to be good. Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers. Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers with similar occupations. Learn more about heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and occupations.
HVACR technicians install, maintain, and repair heating, cooling, and refrigeration systems. Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers—often called HVACR technicians—work on heating, ventilation, cooling, and refrigeration systems that control the temperature and air quality in buildings. Duties Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers typically do the following: • Install, clean, and maintain HVACR systems • Install electrical components and wiring • Inspect and test HVACR systems and components • Discuss system malfunctions with customers • Repair or replace worn or defective parts • Recommend maintenance to improve system performance • Keep records of work performed Heating and air conditioning systems control the temperature, humidity, and overall air quality in homes, businesses, and other buildings. By providing a climate-controlled environment, refrigeration systems make it possible to store and transport food, medicine, and other perishable items. Some HVACR technicians specialize in one or more specific aspects of HVACR, such as radiant heating systems, solar panels, testing and balancing, or commercial refrigeration. When installing or repairing air conditioning and refrigeration systems, technicians must follow government regulations regarding the conservation, recovery, and recycling of refrigerants.
The regulations include those concerning the proper handling and disposal of fluids and pressurized gases. Some HVACR technicians sell service contracts to their clients, providing periodic maintenance of heating and cooling systems. The service usually includes inspecting the system, cleaning ducts, replacing filters, and checking refrigerant levels. Other workers sometimes help HVACR technicians install or repair cooling and heating systems.
For example, on a large air conditioning installation job, especially one in which workers are covered by union contracts, ductwork may be installed by, electrical work by, and pipework. Boiler systems are sometimes installed by a.
Home appliance repairers usually service window air conditioners and household refrigerators. HVACR technicians work indoors and outdoors. Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers held about 332,900 jobs in 2016.
The largest employers of heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers were as follows: Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning contractors 64% Self-employed workers 9 Educational services; state, local, and private 4 Retail trade 4 Wholesale trade 3 HVACR technicians work mostly in homes, schools, stores, hospitals, office buildings, or factories. Some technicians are assigned to specific jobsites at the beginning of each day. Others travel to several different locations, making service calls. Although most technicians work indoors, some may have to work on outdoor heat exchangers, even in bad weather.
Technicians often work in awkward or cramped spaces, and some work in buildings that are uncomfortable because the air conditioning or heating system is not working properly. Injuries and Illnesses HVACR technicians have one of the highest rates of injuries and illnesses of all occupations. Potential hazards include electrical shock, burns, muscle strains, and injuries from handling heavy equipment. Appropriate safety equipment is necessary in handling refrigerants, because they are hazardous and contact can cause skin damage, frostbite, or blindness. When working in tight spaces, inhalation of refrigerants is also a potential hazard.
Several refrigerants are highly flammable and require additional care. Work Schedules The majority of HVACR technicians worked full time in 2016. Evening or weekend shifts may be required, and HVACR technicians often work overtime or irregular hours during peak heating and cooling seasons. New HVACR technicians typically begin by working alongside experienced technicians.
Because HVACR systems have become increasingly complex, employers generally prefer applicants with postsecondary education or those who have completed an apprenticeship. Some states and localities may require technicians to be licensed. Workers may need to pass a background check prior to being hired. Education Many HVACR technicians receive postsecondary instruction from technical and trade schools or community colleges that offer programs in heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration. These programs generally last from 6 months to 2 years and lead to a certificate or an associate’s degree. High school students interested in becoming an HVACR technician should take courses in vocational education, math, and physics. Knowledge of plumbing or electrical work and a basic understanding of electronics is also helpful.
Training New HVACR technicians typically begin by working alongside experienced technicians. At first, they perform basic tasks such as insulating refrigerant lines or cleaning furnaces. In time, they move on to more difficult tasks, including cutting and soldering pipes or checking electrical circuits.
Some technicians receive their training through an apprenticeship. Apprenticeship programs usually last 3 to 5 years. Over the course of the apprenticeship, technicians learn safety practices, blueprint reading, and how to use tools. They also learn about the numerous systems that heat and cool buildings.
Several groups, including unions and contractor associations, sponsor apprenticeship programs. Apprenticeship requirements vary by state and locality. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires all technicians who buy, handle, or work with refrigerants to be certified in proper refrigerant handling. Many trade schools, unions, and employer associations offer training programs designed to prepare students for the EPA certification exam.
In addition, some states and localities require HVACR technicians to be licensed; check with your state and locality for more information. Important Qualities Customer-service skills. HVACR technicians often work in customers’ homes or business offices, so it is important that they be friendly, polite, and punctual.
Repair technicians sometimes deal with unhappy customers whose heating or air conditioning is not working. Detail oriented. HVACR technicians must carefully maintain records of all work performed. The records must include the nature of the work performed and the time it took, as well as a list of specific parts and equipment that were used. HVACR technicians need to calculate the correct load requirements to ensure that the HVACR equipment properly heats or cools the space required. Mechanical skills. HVACR technicians install and work on complicated climate-control systems, so they must understand the HVAC components and be able to properly assemble, disassemble, and, if needed, program them.
Physical stamina. HVACR technicians may spend many hours walking and standing. The constant physical activity can be tiring.
Physical strength. HVACR technicians may have to lift and support heavy equipment and components, often without help. Time-management skills. HVACR technicians frequently have a set number of daily maintenance calls. They should be able to keep a schedule and complete all necessary repairs or tasks. Troubleshooting skills. HVACR technicians must be able to identify problems on malfunctioning heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration systems and then determine the best way to repair them.
Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics The median annual wage for heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers was $45,910 in May 2016.
The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $28,440, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $73,350. In May 2016, the median annual wages for heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers in the top industries in which they worked were as follows: Wholesale trade $48,730 Educational services; state, local, and private 48,190 Retail trade 46,870 Plumbing, heating, and air-conditioning contractors 44,390 Apprentices usually earn about half of the wage paid to experienced workers. As they learn to do more, their pay increases. The majority of HVACR technicians worked full time in 2016.
Evening or weekend shifts may be required, and HVACR technicians often work overtime or irregular hours during peak heating and cooling seasons. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program Employment of heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers is projected to grow 15 percent from 2016 to 2026, much faster than the average for all occupations.
Commercial and residential building construction is expected to drive employment growth. The growing number of sophisticated climate-control systems is also expected to increase demand for qualified HVACR technicians.
Repair and replacement of HVACR systems is a large part of what technicians do. The growing emphasis on energy efficiency and pollution reduction is likely to increase the demand for HVACR technicians as climate-control systems are retrofitted, upgraded, or replaced entirely. Job Prospects Job opportunities for HVACR technicians are expected to be good. Candidates familiar with tablet computers and electronics, as well as those who have developed troubleshooting skills, will have the best job prospects. Technicians who specialize in new installation work may experience periods of unemployment when the level of new construction activity declines. Maintenance and repair work, however, usually remains relatively stable.
Business owners and homeowners depend on their climate-control or refrigeration systems year round and must keep them in good working order, regardless of economic conditions. Employment projections data for heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers, 2016-26 Occupational Title SOC Code Employment, 2016 Projected Employment, 2026 Change, 2016-26 Employment by Industry Percent Numeric SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers 49-9021 332,900 382,000 15 49,100.
State & Area Data Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) The (OES) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to OES data maps for employment and wages by state and area.
• Projections Central Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. Midnight Club 3 Dub Edition Psp Cso Download Torrent. All state projections data are available.
Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved. CareerOneStop CareerOneStop includes hundreds of with data available by state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a to search for wages by zip code. Similar Occupations This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers.
Occupation Job Duties ENTRY-LEVEL EDUCATION 2016 MEDIAN PAY Boilermakers assemble, install, maintain, and repair boilers, closed vats, and other large vessels or containers that hold liquids and gases. High school diploma or equivalent $62,060 Electricians install, maintain, and repair electrical power, communications, lighting, and control systems in homes, businesses, and factories. High school diploma or equivalent $52,720 Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters install and repair pipes that carry liquids or gases to, from, and within businesses, homes, and factories. High school diploma or equivalent $51,450 Sheet metal workers fabricate or install products that are made from thin metal sheets, such as ducts used in heating and air conditioning systems. High school diploma or equivalent $46,940 Solar photovoltaic (PV) installers, also known as PV installers, assemble, install, and maintain solar panel systems on rooftops or other structures.
High school diploma or equivalent $39,240 General maintenance and repair workers fix and maintain machines, mechanical equipment, and buildings. They paint, repair flooring, and work on plumbing, electrical, and air-conditioning and heating systems, among other tasks. High school diploma or equivalent $36,940 Wind turbine service technicians, also known as windtechs, install, maintain, and repair wind turbines.
Postsecondary nondegree award $52,260 Stationary engineers and boiler operators control stationary engines, boilers, or other mechanical equipment to provide utilities for buildings or for industrial purposes. High school diploma or equivalent $59,400. Pay The Pay tab describes typical earnings and how workers in the occupation are compensated—annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses. Within every occupation, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and geographic area.
For most profiles, this tab has a table with wages in the major industries employing the occupation. It does not include pay for self-employed workers, agriculture workers, or workers in private households because these data are not collected by the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey, the source of BLS wage data in the OOH.